Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) silk weaves – brocades
An extra weft of gold thread runs across the warp with the motifs picked up in silk thread and jewel like colours worked in the style of minakari in jewellery.
Another variety of gold brocade has warp and weft of gold thread with patterns worked in silk and gold thread. Normally the background material is woven in silver zari and the patterns in gold. This is known as Ganga-Yamuna, Ganga standing for the gold thread and Yamuna for the silver.
Yet another variety is the gold and silver lame tissues.
The pure silk brocades are very intricate with silk thread used for creating the patterns.
Baluchar weaves of West Bengal
These are plain woven fabric brocaded with untwisted silk thread developed in Murshidabad. The specialty is the large pallav, with a large pattern radiating from the centre. The body of the saree carries zari buttas. The designs from the miniature paintings are used for the pallav design. The weavers of Varanasi have excelled in creating textiles of this variety.
Tanchoi weaves of Gujarat
These textiles are based on satin weaving. The base is satin and the extra weft floats are merged into the fabric.
Paithani weaves used in pallavs of silk sarees of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh
The paithani technique, where the warp is zari thread with coloured thread for the weft & this technique is used in the pallav of the silk sarees.
Kancheepuram weaves of Tamil Nadu
The silk sarees are woven with fine silk with contrasting border & pallav woven with a variety of zari motifs such as rudraksham, malli moggu, gopuram, etc. There are other areas in Tamil Nadu that are famous for their silk weaves such as Dharmavaram, Arni. Tanjore is famous for the all over gold woven sarees used for temples.
Patola weaves are practised in various regions with slight variations based on local taste. In Patola weaving the warp and weft threads are tied and dyed before it is woven. The warp thread is first stretched on the loom and the design is marked on this. Areas are tied and dyed. The tie & dye process is done in various colours from lighter to darker colour shade. The weft threads are fixed on a prepared frame placed at an angle & the same process is carried out. The weft threads are thrown over the warp & woven using long bamboo needles to hold the design. Sometimes only the warp or weft is tie-dyed & then it is known as single patola.
The double Ikat technique is followed in Rajkot & Patan, Gujarat.
Andhra Pradesh is famous for the Pochampally sarees with the geometrical patterns, which are usually made with only the weft tie-dyed. Chirala in Andhra Pradesh is another centre famous for Patola weaving.
Orissa is famous for Vichitrapuri sarees. Here in addition to the patola technique, additionally have extra warp weaves of natural silk. Apart form the usual geometrical patterns, complicated temple designs are woven in the pallav.